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There are substantial differences ,vithin these categories, however. Some local agencies are large and have many personnel who perform specialized duties investigation, traffic, juvenile, etc. Even federal agencies that might seem similar have significant differences. Local jurisdictions vary greatly among urban, suburban, and rural, from New York City to rustic West Virginia, remote Alaska, or the Mississippi Delta. Although urban crime rates tend to be higher than rural crime rates, crime associated ,vith urban areas is often exported to rural areas; for example, urban drug trafficking is a driving force behind the spread of drug use and the development of gangs in rural areas. Some of the crimes that tend to be associated with rural areas include growing marijuana and manufacturing methamphetamine; theft of crops, timber, and animals; and poaching.
Some crimes in rural areas are more easily solved i. Also, rural ,vitnesses may be better able to personally identify observed suspects. By contrast, a witness in an urban area is more likely to be describing a total stranger. Sims , 45 describes other differences that exist benveen urban and rural police: Urban police tend not to live where they work, while rural officers do Rural law enforcement involves.. more face-to-face interaction and communication. includes a greater.. percentage of police-acquaintance contacts and.. This article provides some background on the town and residents' appreciation for the chief's quick and heroic response.
SOURCE: Modern Policing blog, February 27, In addition, rural Ja,v enforcement officers, more than their urban counterparts, often ,vork ,vith lower budgets, fewer staff, Jess equipment, and fe,ver ,vritten policies. They typically ,vork alone and must ,vait longer for back-up assistance see Inside Policing 1. But they also appear to be more efficient than urban police and more respected by the public. The context in which rural police work takes place also affects their activities. Rural citizens may be more likely to rely on informal social controls i. In addition, rural residents may be more likely to mistrust government and, therefore, may be more reluctant to share information Weisheit, Falcone, and Wells ; McDonald, Wood, and Pflug Police Role and Purpose Egon Bittner , 46 famously described the core of the police role as "the d istribution of nonnegotiably coercive force employed in accordance ,vith the d ictates of an intuitive grasp of situational exigencies.
Moreover, police have discretion in deciding ,vhat to do and ho,v to do it. None of this authority or discretion is unlimited, but the reality is that society needs a mechanism for handling trouble, including trouble that must be dealt ,vith immediately. That mechanism is the police. The police are the major representatives of the legal system in their transactions ,vith citizens. The police "adapt the universal standards of the Ja,v to the requirements of the citizen and the public through their right to exercise discretion. Although using force may be at the core of the police role, the police also provide a variety of more mundane governmental and social services. In doing their job, the police have intimate contact with a ,vide variety of citizens in a ,vide variety of situations: Police officers deal with people when they are both most threatening and most vulnerable, when they are angry, when they are frightened, when they are desperate, when they are drunk, when they are violent, or when they are ashamed.
Every pol ice act ion can affect in some way someone's dignity, or self-respect, or sense of privacy, or constitutional rights. President's Commission , The police role is the part that police are expected to play in a democratic society. There are several major sources of expectations concerning ,vhat the police sho uld do and ho,v Police i n a Demo cracy they should do it, including the Ja,v, the police organization, the community, and the individual Roberg, Kuykendall, and Novak The extent of role-related conflict over the police either increases or decreases depending on the degree to which these expectations are shared. When expectations from different sources are compatible, there is minimal difficulty in deciding what the police should do and how they should do it. When expectations differ, ho,vever, conflict can arise over the police role. Legal expectations. Laws provide the basic frame,vork in which the police are sup- posed to function.
Although the police do not always follo,v the Jaw, legal expectations have a substantial influence on ,vhat they do and how they behave. Police do not enforce all laws all the time, ho,vever; rather, they exercise discretion in deciding ,vhat Jaws to enforce and how to enforce them. These discretionary decisions may not ahvays be compatible with what either the formal organization or the community expects. Organizational expectations. The formal and informal aspects of a police department produce organizational expectations. Formal expectations are derived from leaders, supervisors, training programs, and the goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and regulations of the police department. Informal expectations are derived from officers' peers, the ,vork group, and the police culture Crank ; Paoline Officers are strongly influenced by their ,vork experiences and the way in ,vhich they adjust to the emotional, psychological, intellectual, and physical demands of police work.
They must attempt to do their job in a manner that is acceptable to both the police department and their peers, while trying to stay safe and not provoke citizen complaints. Community expectations. Societal trends and problems, in general and in each community, create an environment of community expectations. Individual citizens and subgroups- ,vomen and men, youth, rich and poor, traditionalists and cosmopolitans, members of minority groups, immigrants- all have their o,vn opinions about police and their own priorities and preferences. In some communities there can be a reasonable degree of consensus about the role that the police should play, but in many communities there are divergent expectations. To add an additional complication, these expectations often change over time in response to specific events, evolving conditions, or changes in the composition of the community.
Individual expectations. Police employees' individual expectations refer to their personal perspectives concerning the degree to which their needs are met by the organization and their working environment. All employees expect to be treated fairly and adequately re,varded. They also have their own beliefs about police ,vork and how the police role should be carried out. Those beliefs may be affected by peers and the police culture, but they can also be individualistic Linn Law Enforcement or Politic s? What is the most effective ,vay to integrate the role of police into a democratic society? The former is a legalistic or bureaucratic, quasi-military, professional, or reform approach; the latter is a political approach.
The concept of a la,v enforcement or legalistic approach assumes that justice is a product of consistent application of Jaws and departmental policies and procedures. Ideally, these Ja,vs, policies, and procedures are 19 20 Policing Foundations rationally developed and free of any bias that ,vould be inconsistent with the fundamental principles of the society. One is that la,vs and the police primarily serve the interest of the most influential persons in a community. Such individuals are considered above the la,v, whereas others are treated more harshly. This vie,v leads to politics of preference and discrimination. The second view focuses on responsiveness and individualization. Its advocates argue that strict enforcement of the rules does not take into account the uniqueness of the problems and needs of individuals and neighborhood groups in the community.
Complete consistency is not required, and preferential treatment and discrimination are not inevitable if police officers are professional. The police response should be lav. rful but otherwise a function of the situational context and community values as they relate to community problems. This debate behveen the legalistic and the political approach emphasizes a long-standing tension in democratic societies- the rule of law versus community expectations. At the one extreme is the uncaring bureaucrat who never deviates from the rules and does not seek opinions about ,vhich rules are important and ,vhen and how they should be applied.
At the other extreme is the tyran ny of the majority. Ho,vever much ,ve subscribe to the rule of la,v, those ,vho provide government service are often called on to tailor that service to the needs of a particular community. But ho,v can they do this ,vithout providing preferential treatment for some individuals, groups, neighborhoods ,vhile discriminating against others? The ans,ver to this question remains elusive and varies concerning ho,v, or even ,vhether, it can be done. The legalistic approach and the two variants of the political approach to the role of the police identify three possible types of police- community relationships. The political model refers to a police- community relationship that is plagued by problems of preferential treatment, discrimination, and corruption. The community policing model is based on the desirability of the police being responsive to individuals and groups ,vhile at the same time not engaging in preferential treatment or discrimination.
Crime-Fighting or Social Service? The debate about ,vhether the police should only fight crime or should also provide social services influences the priority given to police activities, the type of personnel selected, the ,vay officers are trained, and the styles that officers adopt. Officers ,vho consider themselves crime-fighters believe that crime is a function of a rational choice made by criminals and that the primary police purpose is to patrol and conduct investigations to deter crime and apprehend offenders. Officers who consider themselves social service providers believe that crime results from a variety of causes and that there are other police activities, such as crime prevention education and community building, that may also reduce the crime rate.
The social service orientation tends to result in more police- community involvement and a less aggressive and authoritarian approach to policing. There are, of course, no "pure" crime-fighters or social service providers; however, the belief that police are, or should be, one or the other influences ho,v the police role in a community will be constructed. Often the role expectations vary by source. Some communities, neighborhoods, or groups may expect police to be crime-fighters, ,vhereas others may ,vant a social service orientation.
Often, police officers prefer to think of themselves as crime-fighters. Police in a Democracy 21 INSIDE POLICING 1. The plan follows an in-depth investigation that found "a series of troubling practicesincluding unconstitutional stops, searches and arrests; the use of excessive force; and theft by officers-in violation of the First, Fourth and 14th Amendments. We found practices that not only broke the law, but also eroded trust. We found policies that not only harmed residents, but also lacked accountability. And we found systems that not only failed the community, but also failed officers themselves. March 31 , Proactive police w·ork emphasizes police-initiated activities by the individual officer and the department. React ive police ,vork occurs more in the form of responses to incidents ,vhen assistance is specifically requested by citizens.
Giving a traffic ticket or other citation or conducting a field interrogation is proactive. Developing a solution to a crime or other problem that is designed to keep it from occurring is also proactive. For example, undercover decoy programs are proactive, as are "stakeouts" following suspected career criminals and picking up truants ,vho may be committing burglaries when absent from school. Responding to specific incidents based on citizen requests and following up on those incidents are reactive responses. Proactive responses can be problematic because they make the police more intrusive in the community- that is, police are more likely to initiate contacts or tactics ,vithout being asked, and some proactive efforts are potentially dangerous e.
Being proactive can be associated with good management, but it may also be intrusive and risky. In recent years, several police departments, including Philadelphia and Ne,v York, ,vere criticized for excessive use of "stop-and-frisk" American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania ; New York Civil Liberties Union A particular concern is that when police proactively stop people they think are acting suspiciously, conscious or unconscious bias may influence who they decide to stop, resulting in racial profiling or other forms of discrimination see Inside Policing 1. Which is more compatible ,vith democracy- a police force that is primarily reactive or one that is more proactive?
Passive reactive policing interferes ,vith our freedom the least, but likely also protects us the least. In trying to strike the right balance, it may be important to distinguish the degree to ,vhich proactive police ,vork is in response to community expectations versus the expectations of the police department or individual police officers. What is clear, ho,vever, is that the more proactive and intrusive the police are, the greater the risk to police officers, citizens, and democracy. Police Activitie s and Workload As these debates about the role of the police suggest, police officers perform a variety of different kinds of tasks and activities. The most comprehensive study of patrol work ,vas the Police Services Study Whitaker The observers collected information on each encounter between a police officer and a citizen, detailing nearly 6, encounters in all.
In a sophisticated reanalysis of the Police Services Study, Mastrofski examined the most frequent incidents encountered by patrol officers. The percentages indicate the proportion of all encounters in ,vhich police officers took each kind of action. These numbers add up to more than percent because officers often took more than one type of action in an encounter. The use of force or its threat was about equally likely in situations involving crime, disorder, and traffic encounters, but rare in service situations. Perhaps the most interesting characteristic of police ,vork revealed by these percentages is the importance of interpersonal communication.
Five of the six most common actions taken by officers consisted entirely of talking and listening: intervie,ving, interrogating, lecturing or threatening, giving information, and giving reassurance. Police officers primarily use communication to determine ,vhat is happening in any given situation, and it is primarily through communication that an amicable solution is reached. Enforcing the law and using force often come into play only after communication tactics and informal solutions prove unsuccessful, although serious la,v violations do sometimes require immediate enforcement, and very dangerous suspects may ,varrant immediate use of force.
The traffic function of policing accounts for a sizable portion of all police- citizen encounters and significantly impacts how the public vie,vs the police. According to a study based on a large sample of U. residents, 63 million Americans aged 16 or older had a police contact in , ,vith vehicle stops accounting for 42 percent Langton and Durose Of those involved in vehicle stops, 86 percent said the police behaved properly and respectfully. Less than 4 percent ,vere searched and less than 2 percent said the police used physical force during the encounter. Police officers typically have a great deal of discretion in making traffic stops and issuing citations, and the level of traffic enforcement varies greatly among individual officers and behveen different departments.
Some departments have no formal policies regarding traffic enforcement, although there are often informal policies and expectations. Such policies or expectations can lead to unequal traffic enforcement, ,vith officers scrambling at the end of shifts or at the end of the month to "keep their numbers up" or "meet their quotas. Police G oals and Strategies In this section ,ve have discussed several different ways of thinking about the role of the police in a free society and also some information about ,vhat police officers actually do. To complete the discussion, ,ve will consider ,vhat police officers and entire police agencies are supposed to accomplish their purpose or goals. We will also briefly touch on the strategies that police agencies use to try to accomplish their goals. A particularly useful listing of police goals is provided in Table 1.
Moore and Braga present these goals as the "bottom li ne" of policing. This framework illustrates that the police bottom line i. This is another ,vay of saying that ,ve expect the police to accomplish several different things, more or less simultaneously. This helps explain ,vhy policing is complex and also why different members of the community might have different opinions about ho,v well their police are performing- opinions regarding which goals are most or least important vary from person to person and also over time. Individual officers who give the highest priority to the goal of calling offenders to account tend to perceive the police role as mainly law enforcement, in contrast to officers ,vho put more priority on maintaining order ensuring civility in public places or 23 24 Policing Fou ndat ions TABLE 1.
Moore a1td A. DC: PoJice Executive Research Forum, reassuring the public reducing fear. An emphasis on reducing crime reflects the crime-fighter role, ,vhereas the social service role tends to focus some,vhat more on satisfying the public by providing quality services see Inside Policing 1. A proactive approach to policing might promise more success in reducing crime or holding offenders accountable, but at the risk of inefficient or unfair use of police po,ver and authority. The interplay among these different dimensions of police performance helps explain the different ,vays that police officers and the public perceive the police role. At the police agency level, ,ve can see the same thing. Some police departments put their highest priority on reducing crime, perhaps because their jurisdiction has a high crime rate or because the police chief adheres to the crime-fighter role. Other police departments seem to focus more on maintaining order or providing services, perhaps because crime rates are lo,ver in their jurisdictions or in response to d ifferent community and political expectations Wilson Certain agencies, especiallyfederal and some special-jurisdiction agencies, clearly put their greatest emphasis on calling offenders to account- in these agencies, investigation is the dominant activity and success is measured almost entirely in terms of cases solved.
Efficient use of financial resources has ahvays been perceived as a high priority for taxpayers, but it has come to the forefront in recent years. Tax limitation measures adopted over the past 30 years have significantly reduced public funds in many states and local jurisdictions. In addition, the recent economic do,vnturn caused many police agencies to cut back on services and even lay off s,vorn personnel. After one or two decades during which police agencies seemed to have favored status ,vith taxpayers, city managers, and mayors at budget time, finances have tightened and police chiefs must often find places to cut their budgets. INSIDE POLICING 1. SOURCE: Modern Policing blog, August 31, Pol ice in a Democracy Additionally, the public tends to put a high priority on the "using force and authority fairly" and "quality services" dimensions. If a community believes that its police officers do not treat people fairly or if citizens have unpleasant contacts w·ith officers, public trust and confidence are easily compromised.
This seems to be true even if, at the same time, the police department can demonstrate success in achieving other goals, such as reducing crime and holding offenders to account. This characteristic of police performance is now sometimes referred to as procedural justice Sunshine and Tyler ; the lesson is that process can be as important as outcome in judging the effectiveness of the police and maintaining the legitimacy of the police institution, a point to which ,ve ,vill return in Chapter 5. Another implication of procedural justice and police legitimacy is that how the police try to accomplish their goals can be as important as ,vhether they accomplish them, ,vhich brings strategies and tactics into the discussion.
Strategies refers to the broad approaches that police agencies take in trying to accomplish their multiple goals, ,vhereas tactics refers to narro,ver and more specific programs and activities. Community policing is an example of a strategy, whereas foot patrol is a tactic. Major police strategies can be differentiated in nvo ,vays: 1 according to the specific methods that they employ, as noted previously, and 2 according to ho,v much priority they place on the various goals of policing. In a nutshell, professional policing emphasizes reducing crime and holding offenders to account, relying mainly on police presence and strict enforcement of the la,v.
Community policing tends to put more emphasis on the goals of customer satisfaction and fear reduction than the other strategies and relies more on personalized policing, community education, and community engagement. Problemoriented policing emphasizes reducing the harm that is caused by crime and other types of problems, mainly by taking an analytical and preventive approach to identify tailor-made solutions to specific problems. Intelligence-led policing is the newest strategy, focusing mainly on crime reduction aided by high-tech approaches to prediction, prevention, and suppression.
Looking Ahead The aim of this chapter has been to lay a brief foundat ion for your study of police and society. The next three chapters continue in that same vein. Chapter 2 presents the history of police to help you understand when and ,vhy modern police departments developed and how they have evolved, as ,veil as ,vhat societies did before they had police departments as ,ve kno,v them today. Chapter 3 provides the legal framework of policing, including concepts from constitutional, criminal, and civil la,v that define the parameters or "guardrails" within which police are allowed to use their power and authority. Chapter 4 focuses on police strategies, including community policing, ,vhich came to prominence in the s, struggled in the s in the face of financial pressures and competing perspectives on how best to deal ,vith crime and terrorism, and now seems to be making a comeback in response to the crisis of confidence experienced in the post-Ferguson era.
The second section of the book shifts to the organizational or administrative perspective on policing. This approach is important because police officers are members of police organizations, and society looks to police organizations to make their communities safe and free. Chapter 5 discusses police management, including ho,v police agencies are structured and ho,v police officers are managed and led. Chapter 6 examines organizational change, a key perspective for improving policing and ensuring that police departments 25 26 Pol icing Foundations keep up ,vith changing times. Chapter 7 targets three specific police administrative processes related to acquiring and developing the right kinds of people to do police ,vorkrecruitment, selection, and training.
Chapter 8 focuses on the specific operational tactics and programs that police use in the field to try to reduce crime and achieve the other important organizational goals that comprise the multidimensional bottom line. The third section of the book concentrates on police behavior, in other ,vords, ,vhat police officers do, why they do it, and how best to control it. Chapter 9 discusses a variety of types of police behavior and misbehavior, along ,vith theories that aim to explain the behavior. Chapter 10 focuses specifically on the core of the police role, force, and coercion. Chapter 11 then presents information on the many internal and external methods that are used to try to hold both individual police officers and police agencies accountable for their behavior, including their use of power and authority.
It has been said that po,ver corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Police definitely have po,ver, so many mechanisms must be in place to control that po,ver and hold police accountable ,vhen the power is misused. The fourth and final section of the book discusses a variety of important contemporary issues affecting police and society. Chapter 12 revie,vs the experience of ,vomen and minorities in policing and explains why it is so important for police agencies to reflect the diversity of their communities. Chapter 13 examines the effects of stress on police officers and considers the highly important topic of police officer safety, including the surprising fact that fe,ver police die in the line of duty today than in the past.
Chapter 14 assesses the role of higher education in policing; the necessity of college for police officers is an issue that has been vigorously debated since the s. Chapter 15 then discusses a number of different current and emerging issues in society and ,vithin policing, such as transnational crime and cybercrime, the privatization of policing, the impact of modern technologies such as body-worn cameras, and the still-evolving police role in homeland security and counterterrorism. As previously noted, this is a lot of information. Each chapter is full of many important details, but as you digest them, try to keep the big picture in mind as ,veil- policing foundations, police administration, police behavior, and contemporary issues.
You might want to use that frame,vork, along ,vith the chapter titles, as a kind of outline or mental filing system to help you keep so much information organized in a coherent and understandable format. Summary The type of police a society has is determined by its history, culture, and form of governmenttotalitarian or democratic. In free and democratic societies police fill an anomalous and conflicted function. The rule of la,v is one of the most important means for dealing ,vith this conflict. La,vs represent rules that citizens are required to follo,v, of course, but also rules that the police are supposed to follow in their interactions ,vith citizens. In today's ,vorld, terrorism has introduced another ne,v challenge for the relationship among democracy, la,v, and the police. Police are defined as those nonmilitary individuals or organizations that are given the general right by government to use force to maintain the la,v, and their primary purpose is to respond to problems of individual and group conflict that involve illegal behavior.
The police role and ,vhat is considered appropriate or inappropriate police behavior are influenced by legal, organizational, and community expectations as ,veil as the personal values and beliefs of individual police officers. When the expectations arising from these Police in a Democracy different quarters all align, policing can operate from consensus in a smooth manner. Often in a democratic society, ho,vever, expectations clash, creating conflict over the police role and the specific actions that police take in their approach to crime, disorder, and other issues. Another challenge faced in policing is a multidimensional bottom line. Society expects police to accomplish several different ends, including reducing crime as well as providing quality services, making public places orderly, and reassuring people that they are safe.
In addition, police are expected to treat people fairly and equitably and to accomplish their multifaceted bottom line ,vithout expending more tax dollars than absolutely necessary. Several different police strategies currently compete for popular and professional accep· tance as the most effective ,vay to deliver policing in the twenty-first century. Critical Thinking Questions 1. How is policing different in a free and democratic society as opposed to a totalitarian society? It has been said that "democracy is ahvays hard on the police. Why is the rule of la,v important for policing in a democracy? Discuss the ramifications of the multidimensional police bottom line. If you were a mayor, how would you use this bottom line to determine ho,v good your to,vn's police department ,vas and ,vhat it should do to improve?
The police system in the United States is very fragmented. Do you think this is a positive or a negative feature? What would a police department that ,vas proactive and emphasized crime-fighting be like? W hat are some pros and cons to this approach to policing? References American C ivil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania. City of Philadelphia et al. Balko, R. Berkeley, G. The Democratic Policeman. Boston: Beacon Press. Bier, D. Bittner, E. The Functions of Police in Modern Society. Washington, DC: U. Government Printi ng Office. Boston Globe. Civil Rights Division. lnvestigation of the Ferguson Police Department. Department of Justice. Cordner, G. Kenney ed. New York: Praeger. Crank, J. Understanding Police Culture. C incin nati, OH: A nderson. Review: Federal Support for Local Law Enforcement Equipment Acquisition. Washington, DC: Authors.
Gainor, D. Yar on Police. Goldstein, H. Policing a Free Society. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Groden, C. Ingraham, C. Jackman, Tom. Langton, L. Police Behavior during Traffic and Street Stops, Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Linn, E. Arrest Decisions: What Works for the Officer? New York: Lang. lvlastrofski, S. Whitaker and C. Phillips eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. lvlcDonald, T. Rural Criminal Justice. Salem, W I: Sheffield. lvloore, M. Yashington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum. National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund. n leomf. New York Civil Liberties Union.
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. O' Harrow, R. Paoline, E. Rethinking Police Culture: Officers' Occupational Attitudes. El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly. Police Executive Research Forum. Guiding Principles on Use of Force. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Government Printing Office. President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Final Report. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Reaves, B. Census ofState and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, Federal Law Enforcement Officers, Yashington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Police in a Democracy Reiss, A. The Police and the Public. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Reith, C. London: Oxford University Press. Roberg, R. Police Management, 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Roxbury. Royal Commission on the Police. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Store. Sims, V. McDonald, R. Wood, and M. Pflug eds. Salem, WI: Sheffield. Special Litigation Section. Sunshine, J. Walker, S.
History of Police Reform. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Weisheit, R. Wash ington, DC: U. Whitaker, G. Yhat Is Patrol Work'" Police Studies 4: W ilson, J. Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. New York: Basic Books. Wofford, T. Possessing an understanding and appreciation for the history of the police allo,vs one to identify enduring aspects of the police. It also allo,vs for an evaluation of prior police reform efforts and provides a basis for anticipating future policing developments Walker and Katz Yet despite extensive research into policing since the s, no definitive ans,vers exist as to ,vhat the police role should be or ,vhat particular activities are consistently more effective in reducing crime while maintaining ,videspread community support, particularly among the poor and minority members of society.
Is it even possible for the police to be effective in reducing crime ,vithout providing preferential treatment for some while discriminating against others? This question identifies the fundamental police problem in a democracy. The modern approach in responding to this problem is community policing, ,vhich is discussed in Chapter 4. Prior to community policing, other approaches were used to make police compatible ,vith democracy. These approaches, called models of policing, are briefly discussed in this chapter. T IS IMPORTANT TO Foundations of Policing The history of policing begins ,vith a consideration of kin police, Greek and Roman police, and the development of policing in Europe, particularly in England, because of that country's influence on the formation of modern police departments in the United States.
Early Policing One of the earliest methods of policing is kno,vn as kin policin g, in ,vhich the family, clan, or tribe enforced informal and customary rules, or norms, of conduct. Often, the response to a deviation from group norms ,vas brutal e. In effect, each member of the group had at least some authority to enforce the informal rules Berg , The first paid public police officer was the praefectus urbi, a position created in Rome about 27 BC. By 6 AD, Rome had a large public police force that patrolled the streets night and day. Their approach included strengthening the night,vatch, a group of citizens ,vho patrolled at night looking for fires and other problems, and appointing individuals to conduct investigations, make arrests, and collect taxes.
In this system, men over the age of 15 formed a posse comitatus, a group called out to pursue fleeing felons. In the Statute of Winchester mandated that every hundred citizens appoint two constables to assist the sheriff. By the thirteenth century, Jaw was administered by magistrates, who were appointed by the king, and by sheriffs and constables. In the late s, the office of justice of the peace ,vas established in England. These deficiencies did not help the image or effectiveness of policing in the eyes of the community. Patterns of lives ,vere disrupted, and unprecedented social disorder resulted. However, these individuals were more likely to be found sleeping or in a pub than performing their duties.
In London, criminals had little to fear from this system of law enforcement, and they moved freely about the city streets. Police History Poorer citizens had no such protection. When property crimes ,vere committed, the usual procedure ,vas for the victim to employ a thief catcher. This person, usually an experienced constable familiar ,vith the criminal under,vorld, ,vould attempt, for a fee, to secure the return of all or part of the stolen property. Often the thief catcher ,vould supplement his fee by keeping part of the stolen property for himself. Thief catchers were not interested in apprehending and prosecuting criminals, but in getting paid and returning all or part of the stolen property.
Policing in Nineteenth-Century England It is important to focus on the early policing models of nineteenth-century London because this system became a model for policing in England and, to some degree, for the United States President's Commission , 3- 5. Henry Fielding, the magistrate for Middlesex and Westminster, ,vas among the first to believe that police action could prevent crime. From to he assisted in the organization of the Bow Street station and is credited ,vith developing the first police investigators. This station was organized into three groups that performed specific crime-control functions. Men engaged in foot patrol in the inner areas of the city. Additionally, men on horseback allo,ved for patrol up to 15 miles away from the Bo,v Street station. Finally, a group of men ,vere responsible for responding to crime scenes to engage in investigations.
These plain-clothed men became kno,vn as the Bow Street Runners, or Thief Takers, and as such represented the first detective unit Germann, Day, and Gallati In , Sir Robert Peel, the British home secretary, criticized the poor quality of police in London. In he ,vas able to pass the Act for Improving the Police in and Near the Metropolis, also kno,vn as the Metropolitan Police Act. This measure resulted in the creation of the first organized British metropolitan police force and the creation of modern-day police Germann, Day, and Gallati Initially, Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne were appointed to develop the force.
They adopted a military structure and sought to employ the most competent personnel possible. There was considerable resistance, ho,vever, to this ne,v type of police among the British populace. They feared the abuse of governmental authority, the kind of secret police that existed in countries such as France, and limitations on individual freedom. Historically, Britain, like other countries, had many problems in this regard. Eventually the police became accepted, largely because Ro,van and Mayne were selective about ,vho they employed and how officers were to behave. By the s, every borough and county in England ,vas required to develop its o,vn police force. Inside Policing 2. One of the most important principles of the Peelian approach was to emphasize the preventive aspects of Jaw enforcement. This attitude resulted in police officers being distributed throughout the city to prevent crimes or to be close by ,vhen crimes occurred so that officers could make arrests and help victims.
This idea became an important part of the development of police in the United States. Other principles were also implemented to guide the development of the new police force. The Peelian principles include the following: I. The police must be stable, efficient, and organized along military lines; 2. The police must be under government control; 3. The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of police; 4. The distribution of crime ne,vs is essential; 33 34 Policing Foundations INSIDE POLICING 2. One of his most important objectives was to establish an effective police force to respond to riots and crime problems.
It took him seven years- until to be successful. Because the idea for a new approach to policing was so controversial, Peel initially asked that the new police be established only in metropolitan London. He intended, however, that eventually a similar type of police organization would be established for all of Great Britain. Peel was a strong advocate of the concept of a civilian rather than a military police force that did not carry guns and that was put out in the community to patrol to prevent crime. The new police became known as Bobbies, after the founder of the department.
Colonel Charles Rowan Charles Rowan was one of the first commissioners of the new police in London. He served in that capacity until , when he retired. Rowan had a military background that prepared him for such service. Early in the nineteenth century he served under the major general Sir John Moore, whose approach to dealing with his soldiers likely had a strong influence on how Rowan thought the police should relate to the public. Moore believed that officers should show respect for soldiers and treat them firmly and justly. Rowan wanted the same type of relationship to exist between police officers and citizens. Both he and Mayne encouraged officers to listen to citizen complaints and to be tolerant of verbal abuse by citizens. Richard Mayne Richard Mayne, an Irish barrister, served as a police commissioner until His extended service enabled the London police to develop a force that was well respected by citizens.
Together with Rowan, he organized the force into numerous divisions that varied in size depending on the amount of crime in a division's area. Each division had a superintendent in charge, with inspectors, sergeants, and constables, in descending order of rank. Constables wore a blue uniform and were armed with a short baton and a rattle for raising an alarm. The uniform was designed so that it would not be similar to military dress. Mayne and Rowan were both con cerned that a military-style police would have more difficulty being accepted by the public. SOURCES: Adapted from H. Johnson, American Law Enforcement: A HistorJ' St. Louis: Forum Press, , The deployment of police strength both by time and area is essential; 6. No quality is more indispensable to a policeman than a perfect command of temper; a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent action; 7.
Good appearance commands respect; 8. The securing and training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency; 9. Public security demands that every police officer be given a number; Police headquarters should be centrally located and easily accessible to the people; Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis; and Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of police strength. Germann, Day, and Gallati , 61 Police History Peel may not have created the list that is attributed to him; rather, these principles may be a summary of the practices that ,vere developed by Peel, Ro,van, and Mayne.
Lentz and Chaires noted that early presentations of the Peelian principles varied and there is no historical evidence that Peel actually wrote them; they may be a product of authors of twentieth-century policing textbooks who sought ways to succinctly describe the values of early English policing practices. Early policing scholars and a subsequent generation of policing textbooks likely retrospectively interpreted emerging police policy, custom, and practice to create a list of principles, conveniently attributing them to Sir Robert Peel. This understanding is important not only to promote historical integrity, but also to emphasize that policing should be examined ,vithin its social and historical frameworks. A full examination here ,vould be beyond the scope of the current text's goals; ho,vever, ,ve recognize as Lentz and Chaires noted that these principles represent an important ,vay to demonstrate that policing ,vas becoming rational.
A look to,vard these principles has also been used to lend credibility and support for modern police innovations or reform. For example, the "absence of crime" emphasizes the importance of crime prevention and not merely responding to criminal events ; the "rational deployment of police strength" reinforces the importance of crime analysis; "proper training" indicates the need for professionalism and education as championed by hventieth-century reformers ; and "accessibility to the public" reinforces principles underscored in community-oriented policing.
Bringing Peel back to modern strategies can romanticize the past while having intuitive and political appeal and can offer historical street credibility to ,vould-be reformers. These principles, regardless of origin, have shaped policing in Western democratic societies and it is not our intent to minimize either this fact or the influence of Peel himself. Rather, ,ve note that the root of the Peelian principles remains unclear. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections: the development of modern policing at 1 the local county and municipal , 2 the state, and 3 the federal level of government.
The historical discussion of modern policing in this chapter ends in the s, but Chapter 4 includes a discussion of the development of community policing and other emerging policing strategies since the s. The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States In the s and s, the English colonists in America brought ,vith them the system of policing that existed in England. Over time, the basic responsibility for la,v enforcement gradually shifted from volunteer citizens to paid specialists. This process of role specialization ,vas the result of a gro,ving and increasingly complex society attempting to master the physical environment and cope ,vith human problems. One consequence of these economic, social, and technological changes ,vas an increasing public concern about deviant and disruptive behavior.
Initially, the constable- night,vatch system of policing evolved as a response to the problems of maintaining order and enforcing the la,v. Featured All Audio This Just In Grateful Dead Netlabels Old Time Radio 78 RPMs and Cylinder Recordings. Metropolitan Museum Cleveland Museum of Art. Featured All Images This Just In Flickr Commons Occupy Wall Street Flickr Cover Art USGS Maps. Top NASA Images Solar System Collection Ames Research Center. Internet Arcade Console Living Room. Featured All Software This Just In Old School Emulation MS-DOS Games Historical Software Classic PC Games Software Library. Top Kodi Archive and Support File Vintage Software APK MS-DOS CD-ROM Software CD-ROM Software Library Software Sites Tucows Software Library Shareware CD-ROMs Software Capsules Compilation CD-ROM Images ZX Spectrum DOOM Level CD.
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Archive-It Subscription Explore the Collections Learn More Build Collections. Sign up for free Log in. Search metadata Search text contents Search TV news captions Search radio transcripts Search archived web sites Advanced Search. Police and society Item Preview. remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. EMBED for wordpress. com hosted blogs and archive. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Publication date Topics Police -- Congresses , Police-community relations -- Congresses , Police -- Congrès , Relations police-collectivité -- Congrès , Police , Police-community relations , Gesellschaft , Polizei , Aufsatzsammlung , Police -- Congres , Relations police-collectivite -- Congres Publisher Beverly Hills, Calif. prepared for a conference on the contextual determinants of police behavior held at the Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, in February
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in· P ublication D ata CIP data is on file at the Library of Congress ISBN: · 9 8 7 65 4 32 1 Printed by LSC Communications, United States of America This text is dedicated to those who have supported, challenged, and inspired us throughout our careers: For my family: Jill, Benjamin, Paige, and Lauren Novak Special thanks to my family, especially AnnMarie and Lera Cordner To my mother, father, and brother. Police System 11 Other Types of Law Enforcement Agencies 15 Similarities and Differences 17 Police Role a n d Pu rpose 18 Law Enforcement or Politics? Yorkload 21 Police Goals and Strategies 23 Looking Ah ead 25 Sum mary 26 CHAPTER 2 Police History 30 Foundation s of Policin g 31 Early Policing 31 Policing in Nineteenth-Century England 33 The Emergence of Modern Policing in the United States 35 The First City Police Forces 35 The County Sheriff 37 Vigilan ce Com 1nittees 37 Modern A1nerican Policing 38 The Political Era 38 Police Development 38 Criticism in the Political Era 41 The Reform Era 41 Southern Colonial and Frontier Police Development: A Minority Perspective on the Development of American Police 46 State Police 48 Texas and Massachusetts 48 Pennsylvania 48 Highway Patrol 49 Federal Law Enforce1nent 50 The Revenue Cutter Service and the U.
The text is both descriptive and analytical in nature, covering the process of policing, police behavior, organization, operations, and historical perspectives. Contemporary issues and future prospects are also addressed. Throughout the text, an emphasis is placed on describing the relationship benveen the police and the public and ho,v this relationship has changed through the years. To adequately explain the complex nature of police operations in a democracy, we have integrated the most important theoretical foundations, research findings, and contemporary practices in a comprehensible, yet analytical manner. Because of the substantial increase of published research in the field and consistent ,vith previous editions of this text, in the seventh edition ,ve have attempted to include only the most valid and reliable research available, leading to the "best policies and practices" in policing.
We emphasize in-depth discussions of critical police issues rather than attempting to cover- in a relatively brief manner- every conceivable topic or piece of research in the field. We believe this approach contributes more substantially to the intellectual and practical development of the field of policing. We have also incorporated aspects of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing report throughout this edition. In addition, numerous topics have been significantly expanded, as follows: legitimacy, criminal procedure, misconduct, racial and gender diversity, officer stress and safety, focused deterrence interventions, national estimates on police use of force, social media, intelligence-led policing, competing police strategies, and the bottom line of policing.
To provide the most realistic and up-to-date vie,v of the police, several types of offsets are provided. Here students are directed to additional articles, reports, op-eds, editorials, and news stories directly related to topics within the chapter. In this edition ,ve have added nine ne,v "Voices. Ancillaries to enhance instruction include a Companion Website and a revised and expanded Ancillary Resource Center for Inst ructors. We thank the many police officers, police executives, professors, and students ,vith ,vhom ,ve have interacted over the years. Their experiences and insights have given us the basis for many of our ideas and have provided us with a basis for conceptualizing critical issues in policing.
We hope this book increases the understanding and appreciation of policing in society and encourages thought-provoking dialogue among students and the police. Appreciation is also extended to a number of people who provided helpful research reviews, including Charles Castle and Toycia Collins. We also thank those ,vho reviewed the book for their thoughtfulness and insight, including Barbara Allison Crowson, Norwich University; Anna Divita, University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Christine Famega, California State University, San Bernardino; Dennis Febles, Bunker Hill Community College; and Randall Snyder, Arizona State University. We especially thank all of the contributors to the "Voices from the Field" offsets throughout the text. These individuals are experts in policing and academe and have served in policy-making positions in police departments throughout the United States.
Their contributions to our discussion on the police are significant, and they have provided a perspective on policing that cannot be found in any other forum. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Kenneth Novak received his PhD in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati and is currently a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at the University of Missouri- Kansas City. He has published scientific research articles on a variety of topics in policing, including officer decision making, citizens' attitudes toward the police, racially biased policing, and program evaluation. He has conducted research ,vith a number of criminal justice agencies, including the Kansas City Police Department, the Jackson County Prosecutor's Office, and the U.
Attorney for the Western District of Missouri. He is coauthor of the third edition of Police Management , Roxbury. Gary Cordner is professor emeritus of criminal justice at Kutzto,vn University in Pennsylvania. He received his doctorate from Michigan State University and served as a police officer and police chief in Maryland. Cordner has coauthored textbooks on police administration and criminal justice planning and coedited several anthologies on policing. He edited the American Journal of Police from to and Police Quarterly from to Cordner is a past president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and founder and former chair of that organization's Police Section. He recently completed a 9-year term on the Commission on Accreditation for La,v Enforcement Agencies and serves as a senior police advisor for the U.
Department of Justice in Ukraine. Brad Smith received his PhD in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati. He is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University in Detroit. His research focuses on policing and he has published in a variety of areas, including articles on police discretionary behavior, citizens' attitudes to,vard the police, the use of deadly force, and police brutality. He is also a coauthor of Race and Police Brutality: Roots of an Urban Dilemma , State University ofNe,v York Press. Roy Roberg received his doctorate from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, where he also taught. Other teaching experiences include Louisiana State University and San Jose State University, where he taught in the Justice Studies Department for more than 30 years and no,v resides as professor emeritus.
He has published extensively in the areas of police organizational behavior and change, managerial issues, and higher education in policing. He is the editor of an anthology on policing and coeditor of an anthology on corrections and is the author or coauthor of numerous texts, including the third edition of Police Management. He served as a police officer in a large county department of public safety in Washington State. Crime- Fighting or Social Service? Proactive or Reactive? The functions that police perform are critical to the safety of people and communities, but those very functions sometimes collide with our rights, freedoms, and privacy. Department of Justice DOJ , currently exercises oversight of at least 25 law enforcement agencies, including Albuquerque, Cleveland, Ferguson, New Orleans, Seattle, and the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Office Special Litigation Section Another 10 police departments are engaged in collaborative reform projects 1vith a different branch of the DOJ, the COPS Office, including Balti more, Las Vegas, Philadelphia, and San Francisco Office of Community Oriented Policing Services In the aftermath, the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI and Apple engaged in a heated dispute over access to information on the suspects' encrypted iPhone.
The company resisted demands to open a "backdoor" to the phone, saying it ,vould compromise the privacy of all owners of the popular device. Before the matter could be litigated, the FBI ,vithdrew its demand, saying it had obtained a separate "tool" that unlocked the phone Groden Critics complain that investigations become profit driven and the people ,vho Jose their property are often never convicted. The program resumed in after the DOJ placed additional restrictions on it Ingraham The program ,vas temporarily suspended in and then resumed ,vith additional restrictions on the types of equipment available and clearer limitations on ho,v the equipment can be used Executive Office of the President To begin to understand these kinds of situations and controversies, we must start ,vith some basic questions: Why do the police exist?
What do they do? What are their problems? How has policing changed over the years? The central theme of this book is to attempt to ans,ver these and related questions about police in the United States. One note about semantics: Throughout this book, the terms police and law enforcement are used interchangeably. With either term, the intent is to refer to all those ,vho provide police services, whether they ,vork for a police department, sheriffs office, state police, or federal agency. This book contains a lot of information. To help you digest it, the book is organized into four sections: 1.
Policing foundations, including a discussion of the democratic context of policing and the police role, the history of police, legal issues, and the evolving strategies used by police. Police administration, ,vhich includes a discussion of management and organizational behavior, change and innovation, selection and development, police field operations, and selected problems. Police in a Democracy 3. Police behavior, ,vhich includes a discussion of discretion, behavior and misbehavior, police authority and the use of coercion, and police professionalism and accountability. Contemporary issues, including higher education, cultural diversity, stress and officer safety, and the future of policing. Each chapter contains special sections called "Voices from the Field" and "Inside Policing.
Policing a Free Society The police play a double-edge role in a free society. On the one hand, they protect our freedom- not only our rights to o,vn property, to travel safely from place to place, and to remain free from assault, but also such fundamental rights as freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom to change the government through elections. Ho,vever, the police also have the po,ver to limit our freedom through surveillance, questioning, search, and arrest. It is particularly important to understand this anomalous situation ,vhen thinking about policing in the United States because "the police are invested ,vith a great deal of authority under a system of government in which authority is reluctantly granted and, when granted, sharply curtailed" Goldstein , 1.
In our democratic system, government is based on consensus of the people, but policing often comes into play ,vhen agreement breaks down. In our system, government is expected to serve the people, but police often give out "services" that people do not ,vantorders, tickets, arrests. In our system people are largely free to do as they please, but police can force them to stop. In our system everyone is considered equal, but police have more po,ver than the rest of us. It has been said that "democracy is ahvays hard on the police" Berkeley , 1. It might also be said that police can be hard on democracy. These factors indicate why the opposite of a democratic state is often called a police state. Democracy represents consensus, freedom, participation, and equality; the police represent regulation, restriction, and the imposition of government authority on an individual.
WebMar 18, · Download Ebook Police And Society Sixth Edition Robert Reiner has been one of the pioneers in the development of research on policing since the s as well WebPolice And Society Sixth Edition Now in its sixth edition, this unique text in-corporates expanded coverage of police technology, homeland security, privacy and surveillance, WebWe have thousands of online textbooks and course materials (mostly in PDF) that you can download immediately after purchase. Note: e-textBooks do not come with access WebDownload now of 3 1 Police and Society Student’s Name Course Code and Title Instructor’s Name University Affiliations Date of Submission f 2 span of control and unity WebP. olice & Society offers a comprehensive introduction to policing in the United States. The text is both descriptive and analytical in nature, covering the process of policing, police WebJun 6, · Police and Society 8th edition, pdf, ebook and download by Roy Roberg, Kenneth Novak and Brad Smith offers a descriptive and analytical look at the process of ... read more
Organizational integration involves two or more departments becoming one. Five of the six most common actions taken by officers consisted entirely of talking and listening: intervie,ving, interrogating, lecturing or threatening, giving information, and giving reassurance. He served in that capacity until , when he retired. One is that la,vs and the police primarily serve the interest of the most influential persons in a community. Marshals Service 3, Veterans Health Administration 3, Internal Revenue Service, Criminal Investigation 2, Nott: Excludes employees based in U.Police employees' individual expectations refer to their personal perspectives concerning the degree to which their needs are police and society 6th edition pdf download by the organization and their working environment. What would a police department that ,vas proactive and emphasized crime-fighting be like? Secret Service 5, Administrative Office of the U. In the United States, however, the establishment of the ne,v police was not as controversial. In our system, government is expected to serve the people, but police often give out "services" that people do not ,vantorders, tickets, arrests.